Benchmarks / SQ-R

Similar to the EQ-60, the SQ-R was developed by Simon Baron Cohen. The combined results of an EQ-60 and SQ-R test can be used to classify people into 5 broad brain types that take into account the typical differences between males and females.

The test assesses a person's drive to analyze and explore systems to understand underlying patterns and rules that govern the behavior along with the desire to create structured systems governed by rules. There is a high correlation between a person's desire to systemize and ability to do so.

The SQ-R is a self-administered multiple-choice test with 40 items relating to systemizing and 20 control items. Respondents answer the questions with strongly agree", "slightly agree", "slightly disagree", or "strongly disagree". When scoring the test these answers are mapped to the values 0, 1, or 2 on a question by question basis using a key.

The higher the score the higher a person's drive to systemize. Here are the standards for humans:

  • On average women score about 24 and men score about 30.

  • 0-19 = A lower than average ability to analyze and explore a system.

  • 20-39 = An average ability to analyze and explore a system.

  • 40-50 = An above average ability to analyze and explore a system.

  • 51-80 = A very high ability to analyze and explore a system. Three times as many people with Asperger Syndrome score in this range, compared to typical men, and almost no women score this high.

Although this test asks fewer questions about feelings, it still requires a specialized prompt due to its use of first person and terms like "prefer". However, given the same prompt applied to all models, inter-model relative scoring seems reasonable, so long as the QQ-60 is not the sole test.

Given that empathy is an attribute more frequently applied to a female's style of interaction, we expect that empathetic AI's will not score at the top of the range. In the computation of a composite empathy score, this needs to be taken into account. Baron-Cohen's 5 type model can be of assistance:

Baron-Cohen and colleagues extended the E–S theory into the extreme male brain theory of autism, which hypothesizes that autism shows an extreme of the typical male profile.[1] This theory divides people into five groups:

  • Type E, EQ is at a significantly higher level than systemizing (EQ > SQ).

  • Type S, systemizing is at a significantly higher level than EQ (SQ > EQ).

  • Type B (for balanced), EQ is at the same level as systemizing (EQ = SQ).

  • Extreme Type E, EQ is above average but systemizing is below average (EQ ≫ SQ).

  • Extreme Type S, systemizing is above average but EQ is below average (SQ ≫ EQ).

Baron-Cohen says that tests of the E–S model show that twice as many females than males are Type E and twice as many males than females are Type S. 65% of people with autism spectrum conditions are Extreme Type S. Little research has been conducted on the E type profile.

For the purpose of composite scoring, EQ - SQ will provide a rating where the evaluated party with a higher should appear more empathetic as a whole. This score is called the ESQ, the Emotional Systems Quotient